- Rules Of The Game English Literature Essay
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- The Rules of the Game by Amy Tan
- Rules of the Game
Rules Of The Game English Literature Essay
Best torture. White visitors want to adopt the turtles; Chinese residents want to eat them.
This dynamic is carried to the extreme in the passage about torture. What cultural innovation could be more appalling than torture? It is an ugliness, which means excellence only makes it uglier. It shows how radically loyal she is to her Chinese heritage and how quick she is to criticize Americans, no matter what the topic. She prefers Chinese culture over American culture, and that preference outweighs nearly every other consideration. Tan never mentions the cultural implications of these things. And under the ice, in the dim green light, another story is being told.
Waverly, born American to Chinese parents, is growing up in two worlds. Tan even gives her two names, one that ties her identity to each culture. One such incompatibility arises when Santa asks her age. That seemed to satisfy him. But Waverly veers toward American behavior as she pursues chess. Tan has her approach the game in a classically American fashion, the result of which is a classic American success story. She accosts an old man playing in the park and convinces him to mentor her. She gives up social activities to study chess theory.
In this way, she becomes a national champion and gets her picture on the cover of Life magazine. This is, in fact, the embodiment of the American Dream: no matter where you come from, if you have the smarts, take initiative, and work hard enough, you can achieve anything. Tan makes this connection between chess and America even clearer when she has the mother conflate the rules of the two. This American rules.
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Every time people come out from foreign country, must know rules. You not know, judge say, Too bad, go back. They not telling you why so you can use their way go forward. But they knowing all the time. Better you take it, find out why yourself. Once again, this shows the gulf between the Chinese culture the mother understands and the American culture that surrounds her.
But this time Tan is careful to associate the principles of America and the conventions of the chess, and the mother seems to be asking Waverly to forge ahead in both. Tan portrays the Chinese as caring less about personal achievement than they do about humility, harmony, and community.
Cost too much. By the year , it had spread throughout both Muslim Iberia and Latin Europe. A famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon , and dice is known as the Libro de los juegos. Around , the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around , several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today. These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe. In the 18th century, the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France.
The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess  or international chess ,  particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent. As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs , chess books, and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in In , von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels Handbook of Chess , the first comprehensive manual of chess theory.
Chess was occasionally criticized in the 19th century as a waste of time.
The Rules of the Game by Amy Tan
The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton , a leading English chess player, and was held in London in It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen , who was hailed as the leading chess master. His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time. The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits sacrificing pawns or even pieces , daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.
Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time. The game was played more for art than theory.
A profound belief that chess merit resided in the players' genius rather than inherent in the position on the board pervaded chess practice. Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the American Paul Morphy , an extraordinary chess prodigy. Morphy won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to play , including Anderssen, during his short chess career between and Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy; he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks.
Prague -born Wilhelm Steinitz beginning in described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position. Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components. The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan. After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew. Some sources state that in the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch , and Marshall , but this is a disputed claim.
His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later. They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack. After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought.
FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players. The winner of the tournament , Russian Mikhail Botvinnik , started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Previously Black strove for equality, to neutralize White's first-move advantage. As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning.
FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments, where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments. The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.
The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later. This system operated on a three-year cycle.go to site
Rules of the Game
Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.
Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style. Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back.
From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games, and the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion. Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia. Anand defended his title in the revenge match of ,  and Carlsen confirmed his title in against the Russian Sergey Karjakin  and in against the American Fabiano Caruana ,  in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time control , and is the reigning world champion.
Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance , chess was a part of noble culture; it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the " King's Game ". Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes?
It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game. Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.
Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen. Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum 'Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess' , written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c.
This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages. During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.
The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.
By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: — the relation of the several Pieces, and their situations [ Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.
Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation. Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ". Rowling's Harry Potter plays.
The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion. The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer.