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The second class such as the North American air quality index take the form of a scale with various thresholds, which is used to communicate to the public the relative risk of outdoor activity. The scale may or may not distinguish between different pollutants. It is a health protection tool used to make decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution. From air quality monitoring to health risk communication and community engagement, local partners are responsible for the vast majority of work related to AQHI implementation.
Occasionally, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed The AQHI provides a local air quality current value as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today, tonight and tomorrow and provides associated health advice. As it is now known that even low levels of air pollution can trigger discomfort for the sensitive population, the index has been developed as a continuum: The higher the number, the greater the health risk and need to take precautions.
The index describes the level of health risk associated with this number as 'low', 'moderate', 'high' or 'very high', and suggests steps that can be taken to reduce exposure. Significantly, all three of these pollutants can pose health risks, even at low levels of exposure, especially among those with pre-existing health problems.
When developing the AQHI, Health Canada's original analysis of health effects included five major air pollutants: particulates, ozone , and nitrogen dioxide NO2 , as well as sulphur dioxide SO 2 , and carbon monoxide CO.
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The latter two pollutants provided little information in predicting health effects and were removed from the AQHI formulation. The AQHI does not measure the effects of odour, pollen , dust, heat or humidity. Air pollution hotspots are areas where air pollution emissions expose individuals to increased negative health effects. Emissions from these sources can cause respiratory disease, childhood asthma, cancer, and other health problems. Fine particulate matter such as diesel soot, which contributes to more than 3. It is very small and can lodge itself within the lungs and enter the bloodstream.
Diesel soot is concentrated in densely populated areas, and one in six people in the U. While air pollution hotspots affect a variety of populations, some groups are more likely to be located in hotspots. Hazardous land uses toxic storage and disposal facilities, manufacturing facilities, major roadways tend to be located where property values and income levels are low.
Low socioeconomic status can be a proxy for other kinds of social vulnerability , including race, a lack of ability to influence regulation and a lack of ability to move to neighborhoods with less environmental pollution. These communities bear a disproportionate burden of environmental pollution and are more likely to face health risks such as cancer or asthma. Studies show that patterns in race and income disparities not only indicate a higher exposure to pollution but also higher risk of adverse health outcomes.
Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan areas, especially in developing countries where environmental regulations are relatively lax or nonexistent. While smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer in China, the number of smokers is falling while lung cancer rates are rising. On 25 July in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern CURIA, the European Court of Justice ruled that under this directive  citizens have the right to require national authorities to implement a short term action plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.
This important case law appears to confirm the role of the EC as centralised regulator to European nation-states as regards air pollution control. It places a supranational legal obligation on the UK to protect its citizens from dangerous levels of air pollution, furthermore superseding national interests with those of the citizen. In response to these charges, Boris Johnson , Mayor of London , has criticised the current need for European cities to communicate with Europe through their nation state's central government , arguing that in future "A great city like London" should be permitted to bypass its government and deal directly with the European Commission regarding its air quality action plan.
This can be interpreted as recognition that cities can transcend the traditional national government organisational hierarchy and develop solutions to air pollution using global governance networks, for example through transnational relations. Transnational relations include but are not exclusive to national governments and intergovernmental organisations,  allowing sub-national actors including cities and regions to partake in air pollution control as independent actors.
Particularly promising at present are global city partnerships. The C40 is a public 'non-state' network of the world's leading cities that aims to curb their greenhouse emissions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the obsolete medical theory, see Bad air. For the measure of how polluted the air is, see Air quality index.
For the properties of air, see Qualities of air.
Calendar seasons. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Tropical seasons. Dry season Harmattan Wet season. Meteorology Climate change Tornado terms Tropical cyclone terms. Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. Play media. Main article: Indoor air quality.
See also: Neuroplastic effects of pollution. Particulate control Mechanical collectors dust cyclones , multicyclones Electrostatic precipitators An electrostatic precipitator ESP , or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas such as air , using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulates such as dust and smoke from the air stream.
Baghouses Designed to handle heavy dust loads, a dust collector consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system distinguished from air cleaners which utilize disposable filters to remove the dust. Particulate scrubbers Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants.
Main article: Air quality law.
Main article: Toxic Hotspots. See also: List of most polluted cities in the world by particulate matter concentration. Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved Environmental Research Letters. Bibcode : ERL Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 12 August Retrieved 12 March The New York Times. Retrieved 27 June National Geographic. Scientific American. Wall Street Journal. November 7, Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet.
Earth System Research Laboratory. Retrieved 10 January Archived from the original on Balmes, J. Fine, D. Sheppard Symptomatic bronchoconstriction after short-term inhalation of sulphur dioxide Am.
Open environmental sciences. Pacific Standard. Retrieved 2 February Koven; Colette L.source link
Air Pollution Facts, Causes and the Effects of Pollutants in the Air | NRDC
Heald ; Inez Y. Fung Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 24 September European Environment Agency. Elsevier Academic Press. Atmospheric Environment. BBC News. Retrieved 22 September The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 April European Parliament.
Air pollution Essay example
Retrieved 11 January Retrieved 25 May February 21, Retrieved August 14, World Health Organization. May Retrieved 28 April Los Angeles Times. Sacramento Bee. San Francisco Chronicle. European Heart Journal. Reviews on Environmental Health. The New England Journal of Medicine.
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Environmental Health Perspectives. The urban factor in chronic bronchitis" Lancet ;I The Lancet. It is also essential to understand the concept of reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Try to buy used items whenever possible. Choose products with minimal packaging. Buy reusable items. Remember that almost everything that you purchase can be recycled.
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Conserve water as much as possible. Dispose of toxic waste properly. Do not use herbicides and pesticides. Use natural, environmentally friendly chemicals for your everyday chores. Environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems caused by human activities that we should overcome to see a tomorrow and guarantee our descendants a healthy life. There are many environmental concerns for communities around the world to address.
We should always remember that pollution problems affect us all so each of us has to do his or her best to help restore ecological balance to this beautiful place we call home. Learn about the major polluters in your area to protect the air and water where you live. Encourage people to stop pollution, tell them everything you know about this problem, and protest local polluters together.
The masses should be educated on the danger of different types of pollution. People should know everything about all consequences of the environmental pollution in order to prevent the worst from happening.